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The Group's revenue comprises of revenue generated from Coal Mining and Coal Trading divisions as well as from Non-coal Businesses. Total revenue increased from US$763.81 million in FY17 to US$1,048.48 million in FY18. The increase was mainly due to increase in revenue from the Group's Coal Mining division, partially offset by a decrease in revenue from Coal Trading division and Non-coal Businesses.
Coal Mining Division
The Group's Coal Mining division reported an increase in revenue by US$297.78 million or 46.1% from US$645.42 million in FY17 to US$943.20 million in FY18. The increase was mainly driven by higher sales volume partially offset by lower average selling price as compared to the corresponding reporting year. Average selling price showed a marginal decline of 2.6% from US$42.49 per metric ton in FY17 to US$41.39 per metric ton in FY18. The average Indonesia Coal Index 4 ("ICI4") in FY18, a better proxy for the majority of the Group's coal quality, was US$42.00 per metric ton.
Coal Trading Division
Revenue generated by the Group's Coal Trading division decreased by US$10.41 million or 9.1% from US$114.03 million in FY17 to US$103.62 million in FY18. The decrease was mainly due to lower sales volume partially offset by higher average selling price as compared to corresponding reporting year.
Revenue comprises plywood sales as well as management fee income. Revenue decreased by US$2.70 million from US$4.36 million in FY17 to US$1.66 million in FY18 due to absence of log sales and decrease in management fee income which was partially offset by an increase in plywood sales as compared to corresponding reporting year.
The Group reported an increase in cost of sales by US$238.79 million or 53.3% from US$447.90 million in FY17 to US$686.69 million in FY18. This was mainly due to increase in mining services costs due to higher stripping ratios and longer overburden hauling distance, coal freight for increased usage of equipments for transporting of coal, mining overheads comprising road repair and maintenance, fuel costs and royalty expenses as a result of coal production ramp up and sales activities from the Coal Mining division. The increase was partially offset by a decrease in amortisation expenses related to depletion of mine properties for stripping activity and lower coal purchases from Coal Trading Division.
The Group's gross profit increased by US$45.88 million or 14.5% from US$315.91 million in FY17 to US$361.79 million in FY18. The increase was mainly due to the above factors.
The Group's other income decreased by US$3.57 million or 20.6% from US$17.35 million in FY17 to US$13.78 million in FY18, mainly due to a decrease in miscellaneous income of US$1.07 million, absence of reversal of prior year withholding tax provision and compensation income partially offset by an increase in interest income of US$4.02 million derived from bank deposits and advances.
Selling and distribution expenses
The Group's selling and distribution expenses increased by US$52.1 million or 52.5% from US$99.20 million in FY17 to US$151.3 million in FY18 mainly due to increase in (i) stockpile expenses (ii) freight expenses which is in line with our coal production ramp up and (iii) the increase in coal sales volume from the Coal
The Group's administrative expenses increased by US$21.82 million or 39.6% from US$55.11 million in FY17 to US$76.93 million in FY18 mainly due to increase in (i) repair and maintenance expenses for road development in our coal concessions, (ii) salaries, benefits and employee welfare expenses, (iii) taxes and stamp duty fee and (iv) legal and professional fees incurred relating to corporate exercises.
Other operating expenses
The Group's other operating expenses increased by US$1.86 million from US$8.72 million in FY17 to US$10.57 million in FY18 mainly due to an extraordinary item recognized on impairment of goodwill of US$6.51 million which was partially offset by decrease in foreign exchange losses.
Fair value gain on biological asset
The Group recorded a fair value gain on our biological assets of approximately US$2.55 million in FY18 as a result of increase in plantation area and higher selling price.
The Group's finance costs increased by US$12.16 million or 101.8% from US$11.95 million in FY17 to US$24.11 million in FY18 mainly due to an increase in interest expenses resulting from the issuance of the Company's bond in February 2018.
Income tax expenses
Income tax expenses decreased by US$11.69 million or 22.0% from US$53.21 million in FY17 to US$41.51 million in FY18 as a result of (i) lower taxable profit in FY18 and (ii) decrease in withholding tax expenses due to lower dividend income from subsidiary company.
Profit after tax
Due to the factors above, the Group's net profit decreased by US$30.76 million or 29.4% to US$73.68 million in FY18 as compared to US$104.44 million in FY17, and profit attributable to owners of the Company decreased by US$23.63 million or 37.5% to US$39.32 million in FY18 as compared to US$62.95 million in FY17.
Other comprehensive income
The Group's other comprehensive income decreased by US$33.82 million from gain of US$3.71 million in FY17 to loss of US$30.11 million in FY18 mainly due to fall in Westgold share price from AUD 1.77 as at 31 December 2017 to AUD 0.88 as at 31 December 2018, and the effect of the weakening Australia Dollar against United States Dollar.
Assets and liabilities
As at 31 December 2018, the Group has net current assets of US$148.37 million and the Company has net current assets of US$65.11 million. The Group has loans and borrowings totalling US$269.03 million of which US$46.17 million is due within the next 12 months. The Group's cash and cash equivalents stood at US$113.11 million as at 31 December 2018.
For FY18, the Group had net cash outflows of US$80.08 million mainly due to the following:
Net cash generated from operating activities of US$28.83 million which comprised of operating cash inflow before working capital changes of US$139.54 million, net working capital outflow of US$12.32 million, income taxes paid of US$101.47 million and interest and other financial charges paid of US$9.65 million respectively. The Group also recorded interest income received of US$12.73 million. The net working capital outflow of US$12.32 million was mainly due to a increase in trade and other receivables, advances and other current assets totalling US$68.02 million and an increase in inventories of US$0.42 million, partially offset by an increase in trade and other payables of US$56.13 million.
Net cash flows used in investing activities of US$167.26 million mainly due to (i) net cash outflows on acquisition of BSL of US$64.99 million; (ii) purchase of investment securities of US$63.38 million; (iii) purchase of property, plant and equipment of US$18.00 million; (iv) additions of other investment of US$2.06 million; (v) increase in other non-current assets of US$8.56 million; and (vi) increase in restricted fund of US$10.04 million.
Net cash flows generated from financing activities of US$58.35 million was mainly due to proceeds from issuance of bonds of US$149.70 million, proceeds from loans and borrowings of US$105.52 million, partially offset by repayment of loans and borrowings of US$110.80 million, payment of dividend of US$41.71 million and payment of dividend of US$44.36 million by a subsidiary to non-controlling shareholder of the Group.
Global coal demand is expected to remain volatile in 2019 due to uncertainty over China's import restrictions along with stricter environmental policies. China remains key to the seaborne coal market, with imports of over 281 million metric tonnes ("MT") in 2018, up 3.8% year-on-year. According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook for 2018, under the "New Policies" scenario, coal consumption in China is expected to drop 15% by 2040 .
Challenges remain for Indonesia's coal industry as domestic market obligations may impact coal prices in 2019. In an effort to stabilise the global coal price, the Indonesian government has lowered its 2019 coal production target to 480 million MT, while seeking to add 35 gigawatts of power, two-thirds of which could be coal-fired. Domestic coal consumption is expected to reach 128 million MT in 2019, up 11.3% from 115 million MT in 2018.
The benchmark reference price set by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources fell to US$91.80 in February 2019 , decreasing 8.8% from US$100.69 in February 2018 . Spot prices for FOB Kalimantan 4200 thermal coal recovered to US$33 in mid-January 2019, up from a multi-year low of US$28.30 in November 2018, as bad weather in the region affected production and loading schedules.
Coal usage is yet to peak in Asia, and continue to be one of the most important energy components given its affordability and availability. Growth in global seaborne demand for the year is expected to be driven by India and Southeast Asia. Vietnam is likely to lead the regions demand growth with 2 gigawatts of new coal-fired power plants.
Following the acquisition of 25.5% in Australia's Stanmore Coal, GEAR continues to diversify and expand its coal product suite and geographical presence.